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Grade 1 Mathematics

This course builds on the Kindergarten curriculum to further develop students’ understanding of fundamental mathematical concepts by exploring topics related to number sense and numeration, measurement, geometry and spatial sense, patterning and algebra, and data management and probability. Students will work with numbers up to 50 while representing money amounts and performing addition and subtraction. Through investigation, students will measure with non-standard units and begin to tell time. Students build their understanding of two- and three-dimensional shapes, recognize symmetry, and describe location. Students will create patterns and establish an understanding of equality. Students collect, organize, read and display data, and consider the likelihood of events. Throughout the course, students begin developing the mathematical processes of problem-solving, reasoning and proving, reflecting, selecting tools and computational strategies, connecting, representing, and communicating at a basic level. Through investigation of real-life problems, students develop a strong foundation of mathematical knowledge and skills. This course prepares students for grade 2 mathematics. The course relies on the assistance of a learning coach to support young students through the content.

Full Grade 1 Mathematics Course Outline

Course Code: MAT1
Curriculum Policy Document: The Ontario Curriculum Grades 1-8: Mathematics, 2005 (revised)
Department: Primary
Course Developer: Virtual Elementary School
Development Date: 2019


Students show, compare, and order numbers up to 50. Students will read and write numbers, and they will estimate amounts.


Students will count by 1s, 2s, and 5s. Students also find ordinal numbers, order the months of the year, and read a calendar.


In the patterning unit, students find, describe, and create patterns. Students use shapes, colours, numbers, sounds, and actions to create and analyse patterns around them.


Students learn to estimate, compare, describe, and measure length, height, distance, and area using non-standard units of measure.

Shapes, Position, and Symmetry

Students sort, find, and name shapes, find symmetry and create symmetrical designs, and describe and create their own designs. Students also describe positions and locations.

Graphs and Charts

In this unit, students learn about recording, organizing, and reading data in pictographs and concrete graphs. Students also ask and answer questions about graphs.


Students investigate creating, showing, and finding equal groups using a balance model. Students also use addition and subtraction to create equal groups.

Addition and Subtraction

Students develop an understanding of basic addition and subtraction, including utilizing the appropriate symbols and strategies.

Composing, Decomposing, and Groups

Students explore composing and decomposing numbers up to 20, and develop a basic understanding of fractions through learning about wholes, halves, thirds, and fourths.

Likely and Unlikely Events

Students explore probability through examining likely and unlikely events in everyday situations by describing and comparing the likelihood of events.

Shapes and Figures

Students find, sort, and build two-dimensional and three-dimensional shapes and figures. Students also compare and describe shapes in everyday contexts.

Capacity, Mass, Time, and Temperature

Students learn how to estimate, measure, and describe capacity and mass. Students also learn to read digital and analogue clocks, write the time to the half hour, and relate temperature to season.


Students learn about the value of coins and count and compare money amounts. Students also solve addition and subtraction problems related to money.

The Final Grade (Courses with Qualified Teacher)

Student evaluation in this course is based on the student's achievement of curriculum expectations. The final letter grade represents the quality of the student's overall fulfillment of the expectations for the course and reflects the corresponding level of achievement as described in the achievement chart for the discipline. The final grade reflects the student’s most consistent level of achievement across all units in the course, although special consideration is given to more recent evidence of achievement. There is no final assessment, such as an exam, in this course.