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Grade 4 Mathematics

This course builds on the grade 3 curriculum to further develop students’ understanding of fundamental mathematical concepts by exploring topics related to number sense and numeration, measurement, geometry and spatial sense, patterning and algebra, and data management and probability. Students work with numbers up to 10 000, represent money amounts up to $100, and develop the concept of place value up to tenths. Students represent and compare fractions, relate halves, fifths, and tenths to decimals, and build on addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division skills. They add and subtract three-digit numbers and multiply and divide two-digit whole numbers by one-digit whole numbers. Through investigations, students measure length, mass, volume, area, and perimeter, measure time intervals, determine elapsed time, compare mass and capacity, and relate years to decades and decades to centuries. Students identify the properties of parallelograms, classify two-dimensional shapes, identify angles, classify prisms and pyramids, construct three-dimensional figures, describe location using a grid system, and perform and describe reflections. Students relate the term and term number in a numeric sequence and generate patterns involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, and reflections. Students determine the missing numbers in equations and use the commutative and distributive properties. Students collect, organize, read, and display data in stem-and-leaf plots and double bar graphs. Students also understand median, compare two sets of data, predict the frequency of an outcome, and investigate how the number of repetitions of a probability experiment affects the conclusion. Throughout the course, students reinforce the mathematical processes of problem-solving, reasoning and proving, reflecting, selecting tools and computational strategies, connecting, representing, and communicating. Through investigation of real-life problems, students develop a strong foundation of mathematical knowledge and skills. This course prepares students for grade 5 mathematics. The course relies on the assistance of a learning coach to support young students through the content.

Full Grade 4 Mathematics Course Outline

Course Code: MAT4
Curriculum Policy Document: The Ontario Curriculum Grades 1-8: Mathematics, 2005 (revised)
Department: Junior
Course Developer: Virtual Elementary School
Development Date: 2019

Representing Numbers

In the Representing Numbers unit, students learn to read and write numbers up to 1000, show an understanding of place value up to 10 000, represent, compare, and order numbers up to 10 000, and round four-digit numbers in real-life situations.


In the Geometry unit, students draw lines of symmetry on 2D shapes, identify, compare, and classify quadrilaterals, explore benchmark angles, and identify, describe, and classify prisms and pyramids. Students construct 3D figures and nets of 3D figures, construct and sketch skeletons of 3D figures, draw and describe nets of rectangular and triangular prisms, and construct 3D figures using congruent shapes. Students also identify and describe the location of an object on a grid, identify, perform, and describe reflections, create and extend patterns with reflections, and create and analyze symmetrical designs.

Addition and Subtraction

In the Addition and Subtraction unit, students add and subtract two-digit numbers using mental strategies, add and subtract four-digit numbers using partial sums, add and subtract four-digit numbers vertically, and read, represent, and add money amounts up to $100.

Multiplication and Division

In the Multiplication and Division unit, students multiply and divide by 8, multiply and divide by 9, solve multiplication problems mentally, multiply and divide 10, 100, and 1000 using mental strategies, and multiply and divide using a variety of tools. Students solve vertical multiplication equations, divide two-digit by one-digit numbers, solve multiplication problems by estimating, describe relationships using multiplication, and explore multiplication and unit rates.

Patterning and Algebra

In the Patterning and Algebra unit, students create and extend patterns, analyze terms and term numbers, create number patterns, and predict terms in a pattern. Students also determine the relationship between multiplication and division, find the missing number in a multiplication problem, and identify the commutative and distributive properties.

Fractions and Decimal Numbers

In the Fractions and Decimal Numbers unit, students represent fractions, identify the fraction of a group, compare and order fractions, show equivalent fractions, and count by halves, thirds, fourths, and tenths. Students also read and write decimal numbers, show place values from 0.1 to 10 000, represent, compare, and order decimal numbers up to tenths, count forward, add and subtract decimal numbers, and explore the relationship between fractions and decimal numbers.

Data Management and Probability

In the Data Management and Probability unit, students collect data by conducting a survey, and collect and organize data in charts, tables, and graphs. Students read, interpret, and draw conclusions on data, demonstrate an understanding of the median, describe and compare sets of data, and explore probability and probability experiments.


In the Measurement unit, students measure length, height, and distance, draw length, and estimate, measure, and record the perimeter of a polygon. Students determine the relationships among length, perimeter, and area, compare perimeters and areas, and estimate, measure, and record mass. Students investigate grams and kilograms, capacity, millilitres and litres, and volume. They also compare mass and capacity. Students determine elapsed time and solve problems involving years, decades, and centuries.

The Final Grade (Courses with Qualified Teacher)

Student evaluation in this course is based on the student's achievement of curriculum expectations. The final letter grade represents the quality of the student's overall fulfillment of the expectations for the course and reflects the corresponding level of achievement as described in the achievement chart for the discipline. The final grade reflects the student’s most consistent level of achievement across all units in the course, although special consideration is given to more recent evidence of achievement. There is no final assessment, such as an exam, in this course.